I’d like to take this opportunity to thank
the members of the Society for Neuroscience in Anesthesiology and
Critical Care Program Planning Committee for this special opportunity to
share memories of my teacher, mentor and friend, Jane Matjasko who
passed away in January of this year. In preparing this talk, I’d like
to recognize several current and early members of SNACC, listed on this
slide, who provided their most vivid recollections of Jane to help me
capture her spirit and contributions.
As we rapidly approach the 40th anniversary
of this vibrant organization, it’s fitting to remember Jane as one of
the inaugural members of SNACC and a person who worked tirelessly to
champion the specialty of Anesthesiology, particularly Neurosurgical
Growing up as the eldest of six children in
Western Pennsylvania, Jane’s renowned work ethic was established early.
She excelled academically, graduating from Mercyhurst College in 1964,
and then traveled across the state to enroll at the “Women’s Medical
College of Pennsylvania,” (now Drexel University School of Medicine).
Funds were always tight in those years, and Jane worked as a live-in
“Nanny/Childcare provider” for a local Philadelphia family in exchange
for room and board during Medical School. Honing her skills in time
management, Jane held the highest class rank for all four years of
Medical School and received the Beatrice Sterling Hollander Memorial
Prize for “leadership, high character and creativeness” upon graduation.
Arriving at the University of Maryland in 1968, originally
as a resident in Internal Medicine, Jane was quickly attracted to
Anesthesiology. Dr. Martin Helrich, the Chair of the Anesthesiology
Department at the time, “needed to check Jane out,” before committing to
an offer of a residency position, but once assured that she was “the
real deal,” he initiated a wonderful mentorship relationship of several
decades duration that held great rewards for both Jane and Marty.
An Anesthesiology residency at the
University of Maryland in the early 1970’s was not for the faint of
heart. Residents took “in house” call for 72 hour weekend periods and
covered both the University Hospital Operating Rooms and the well
renowned “Shock Trauma” Center. Despite the workload, Jane became well
known to the Medical Staff as a supportive colleague, astute clinician
and welcoming and inclusive patient care team leader. During a
fellowship year, she completed research in Critical Care with T.
Crawford McAslan and became focused on the newly emerging field of
Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, because as she once told me, “We needed to
do it better.”
This slide, taken from Maurice Albin’s 1997
article in the Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, commemorating
the 25th anniversary of SNACC lists the group present at the first
organizational meeting for the “Neurosurgical Anesthesia Society” in
1973. Note Drs. Helrich and Matjasko. Jane would eventually become
the 10th president of the new organization.
In addition to her service as an officer,
she contributed to the Bibliography project for close to 2 decades and
edited a book entitled Clinical Controversies in Neuroanesthesia and
Neurosurgery during her presidential term, offering some up and coming
leaders in the field, such as Adrian Gelb, his first opportunity to
produce a book chapter for the Anesthesiology community.
As noted by Dr. Albin, from the start Jane
was a “Doer:” whatever it took to get the job done. Bob Bedford, who
had a distinguished career at the University of Virginia and served as
SNACC’s 12th president, recalls that in the pre-Google, no trip advisor ,
pre-management company early days, Jane made a special trip to St.
Louis to personally select the next SNACC annual meeting site, and
assure that it was first class. A typical vignette showing Jane’s
passion for assuring that all clinical, educational and social details
were always as perfect as possible.
This next slide, showing Jane and her
husband, Shao Huang Chiu, having dinner and a nice glass of wine with
one of my mentors, Frank James and his wife, Del, serves to illustrate a
favorite way that Jane “took care of business,” while enjoying life.
Jane was well known for finding the best Chinese food in any town and
inviting folks to “come along.” Jim Cottrell recalls sharing dreams of
the future of the Neurosurgical Anesthesiology subspecialty, including
textbook planning, recognition by the American Society of
Anesthesiologists and a specialty journal over many an excellent meal
with Jane. As a mentor to me and to many other young
anesthesiologists, Jane had a way of combining good meals, conversations
about our children, and antique hunting or museum explorations with
careful, personal attention followed by astute advice and wisdom.
Jane worked hard to achieve success in academic
Anesthesiology, for instance, providing endless hours of volunteer work
on American Society of Anesthesiology Committees, speaking to emerging
women leaders for the American Association of Medical Colleges, serving
as Visiting Professor at multiple institutions with few women faculty,
and supporting the Association of University Anesthesiologists. While
always aware that she was “one of a few,” or often the only woman in
many professional circumstances, she uniquely turned situations to her
advantage with her keen observation skills, superb political talents,
sense of timing and dry sense of humor. I can recall her hearty
laughter at a well turned phrase or quip from an otherwise intimidating
This last slide lists some of Jane’s
“Firsts” and achievements in the field of Anesthesiology. For example
Jane was the first woman to serve as the Secretary/Treasurer of the
American Board of Anesthesiology, a position of enormous influence in
our specialty. As one can see, she leaves an impressive legacy and
rightly should be honored for her work to build and grow the field of
Anesthesiology. Most especially, those of us who were privileged to
work closely with her and appreciate her talents and generous nature
intimately, will remember Jane Matjasko as a uniquely gifted, and very
hard working, beloved teacher, friend and colleague who made us all a
little better for the privilege of knowing her.
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 296-307 © 1997 Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia
The Genesis of a Neuroanesthesiology Society
NAS --+ SNANSC --+ SNACC
Maurice S. Albin, M.D., M.Sc (Anes.)
Professor of Anesthesiology and Neurosurgery, Department of Anesthesiology,
University of Texas Health Center, San Antonio, Texas
Address correspondence and reprint requests
to Dr. Maurice S. Albin at the University of Texas Health Center,
Department of Anesthesiology, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio. TX,
The decade of the sixties was seminal for
the development of neuroanesthesiology as a definitive subspecialty.
During those years, standardization of techniques for measurement of
CBF, CMRO2, ICP and neurochemical moieties were introduced. The
physiologic basis of cerebrovascular dynamics was being established and
instrumentation design was spurred by developments in electronics and
engineering. Of equal importance, research groups of anesthesiologists
and neurosurgeons were coalescing in Europe and North America to examine
the effects of anesthetics on cerebral blood flow and metabolism, on
cerebrovascular responses of the traumatized brain, and the dynamics of
intracranial hypertension-to name but a three areas of investigation.
This multidisciplinary approach was spurred as neurosurgeons and
anesthesiologists came to realize that they had common ground in their
need to clarify essential pathophysiologic problems relating to patient
care. Along with those advances, new findings in neurochemistry and the
beginning of important developments in the (then) new subspecialty of
neuroradiology increased the background of intellectual ferment that
heralded great strides in the decade of the seventies.
This is not to say that significant advances
or discoveries had not been made prior to the sixties. We are forever
indebted to the works of Amussat, Sherrington, Bernard, Horsley,
Macewen, Halsted, Cushing, Kety, and Schmidt, among many others. A fine
review of the background to the history of neuroanesthesiology can be
found in a recent work by Frost (1).
The academic purview of neuroanesthesiology
was promoted in 1964 by publication of the first neuroanesthesiology
textbook written in English by Professor Andrew R. Hunter from
Manchester (Fig. 1) (2). This was followed in 1966 by the first Canadian
book in neuroanesthesiology edited by R.G.B. Gilbert (then Chair of the
Department of Anaesthetics at McGill University and Director of
Anaesthesia at the Montreal Neurological Institute) together with Fred
Brindle and Anibal Galindo (3). During this time period (1965), Dr.
Allan Brown of Edinburgh and Professor Hunter founded the
Neuroanesthesia Traveling Club of Great Britain and Ireland, an
organization dedicated to furthering the development of the
neuroanesthesiology as a recognized subspecialty. Also of interest was
the formation in 1961 of a North American working group called the
Commission on Neuroanesthesia, sponsored by the World Federation of
Neurology, and initially composed of Howard Terry (Mayo Clinic), Jack
Michenfelder (Mayo Clinic), Maurice Albin (Case-Western Reserve), and
chaired by R.G.B. Gilbert (McGill). A rapid development of knowledge
relating to neuroanesthesiology from centers in Philadelphia, Glasgow,
Rochester, Richmond, San Francisco, London, New York, Cleveland, and
Montreal was soon to follow.
1. Professor Andrew R. Hunter, pioneering neuroanesthesiologist,
author of the first book on neuroanesthesia in
English (1964), and cofounder of the
Neuroanesthesia Traveling Club of Great Britain and
Ireland in 1965.
Maurice S. Albin, M.D., M.Sc. (Anes), one of the original
organizers (1972) and founders (1973) of NAS and its
Thomas W. Langfitt, M.D. The neurosurgical "Guru"
of North American Neuroanesthesia-both founder and organizer
of NAS in 1972 and 1973.
In May of
1972, Thomas W. Langfitt (Professor and Chief of the Division
of Neurosurgery at the University of Pennsylvania) was a
visiting Professor at the University of Pittsburgh.
During that sojourn he and I had many
conversations concerning the need to form some type
of organization for neuroanesthesiologists working
closely with neurosurgeons (Figs. 2,3). On returning to Philadelphia,
he spoke with James E. Harp (Department of
Anesthesiology, University of Pennsylvania-Fig. 4)
about our conversations and this resulted in a
letter of June 6, 1972, and my reply of June 14,
1972 (Fig.5,6). Doctor Harp and I remained in
contact during the remainder of 1972, and we collated a mailing
list of individuals in the United States and Canada who
might be interested in joining such a group. We
decided that the perfect location for a preliminary
meeting would be Philadelphia, in conjunction with
the Sixth International Cerebral Blood Flow
Symposium. We were also pleased to have Harvey Shapiro
(University of Pennsylvania) join our neuroanesthesiology
crusade (Fig. 7). The Philadelphia CBF venue was very
important since many interested anesthesiologists
and neurosurgeons were in attendance. A specimen
letter from our committee, announcing the meeting
and the suggested goals, can be seen in Figs. 8 and
||FIG.4. James Harp, M.D., one of the original organizers (1972) and founder of NAS (1973).
(click on thumbnail for larger image) Letter from James Harp to Maurice
Albin concerning formation of a neuroanesthesia
Drs. Thomas Langfitt and Harry Wollman (Department of Anesthesiology,
University of Pennsylvania - Fig. 10), the first
organizational meeting took place on June 15, 1973,
at the Marriott Motor Hotel in Philadelphia. It
was attended by 36 anesthesiologists and 4
neurosurgeons (Fig. 11). We named our group the Neurosurgical
Anesthesia Society (NAS); a brief portion of the bylaws can
be seen in Figure 12. One important outcome of this
meeting was Dr. Langfitt's willingness to include
NAS in the programs of the Harvey Cushing Society
(subsequently named the American Association of
(click on thumbnail for larger image) Letter from
Maurice Albin to James Harp regarding plans for a
Harvey Shapiro, M.D., one of the original founders
of SNA, first Secretary and 4th President of
(click on thumbnail for larger image) Specimen letter concerning the
preliminary organizational meeting of the
Neurosurgical Anesthesia Society. This letter was
sent out to anesthesiologists and neurosurgeons
thought to he interested in the organization.
||FIG. 9. (click on thumbnail for larger image) The suggested goals for the proposed Neuroanesthesia Society.
Harry Wollman, M.D., one of the founding members
of NAS and a host of the 1973 organizational
meeting in Philadelphia.
MEMBERS OF THE
'NEUROSURGICAL ANESTHESIA SOCIETY'
(Jun. 15, 1973)
M. Albin, M.D. Pittsburgh, PA
S. C. Alexander, M.D. Madison, WI
D. P. Becker, M.D. Richmond, VA
R. Bergland, K.D. He r hey, PA
V.L. Brechner, M.D. Los Angels, CA
G.F, Brindle, M.W. Sherbrooke, PQ
E.A. Brunner, M.D. Chicago, IL
R.C. Carroll, M.D. Pittsburgh, PA
J.G. Frazer, M.D. Cleveland, ON
A. Galindo, M.D. Seattle, WA
R.G.B. Gilbert, M.D. Montreal, CANADA
T.S. Gilbert, M.D. Durham, N.C.
A.J. Gissen. M.D. Boston, MA
G.A, Gronert, M.D. Rochester, MI
J. Harp M.D. Philadelphia
M. Helrich, M.D. Baltimore, HD
E.M. Kenwell. M.D. Philadelphia. PA
L.K. Kitathata, M.D., Ph.D. New Haven, CT
H.J. Khambatta, M.D. New York, N.Y.
V.E. Lamb K.D. Chicago, IL.
T.W. Langfitt, M.D. Philadelphia. PA
C.P. Larson, Jr., M.D. San Francisco, CA
J.D. Levitt, M.D. Philadelphia, PA
Brian Marshall, M.D. Toronto, ON
K.J. Matjasko, M.D. Baltimore, NO
J.H. Messick, Jr. M.D. Rochester, MI
J.D. Michenfelder, M.D. Rochester. MI
L.R. Orkin, M.D. Mew York , NY
A. Schettini, M.D. Gainesville, FL
M.H. Shapiro, M.D. Philadelphia, PA.
H.C. Slocum, M.D. Galveston, TX
A.L. Smith, M.D. San Francisco, CA
R. Smith, M.D. San Diego, CA
M. Sokol, M.D. Iowa City, IA
J. Tinker, M.D. Ft. Campbell, KY
D. Trop, M.D. Montreal, PQ
J.W. Wads, M.D. Winnipeg, KB
R.J. White, M.D. Cleveland, OH
H. Wollman, M.D. Philadelphia. PA
A. Yeakel, M.D. Hershey. PA
(click on thumbnail for larger image) Charter members of the
Neurosurgical Anesthesia Society at its meeting on
June 15, 1973. Four neurosurgeons were present
including Becker, Bergland, Langfitt, and White
(click on thumbnail for larger image) A portion of the articles of
organization and by-laws of the Neurosurgical
(click on thumbnail for larger image) Part of the program at the 1975
AANS indicating two of the SNANSC contributions.
(click on thumbnail for larger image) Specimen of letter sent to all
neurosurgical and anesthesia programs in the United
States and Canada announcing its meeting in San
Francisco on October 7, 1973.
allowed our members to interact with neurosurgeons through
panel discussions and workshops and through the presentation
of papers on subjects related to our two specialties.
An example of the participation of our membership
is shown in the flyer for the 1975 meeting (Fig.
first organizational meeting on June 15, 1973, an ad hoc
committee of members Shapiro, Harp, and I sent a letter to
all program directors in anesthesiology and neurological
surgery concerning the formation of the
Neurosurgical Anesthesia Society. The letter
emphasized that this new group would be multidisciplinary,
with an open membership (Fig. 14). It also mentioned that
the first organized meeting of the Society would take
place on October 7, 1973, in San Francisco, since
the ASA was to meet there that year. In addition to
Drs. Harp, Shapiro, and 1, the ad hoc committee
also included Drs. Alan Smith (San Francisco),
Stephen Wyte (Denver), Brian Marshall (Toronto),
John Wade (Winnipeg), and Anibal Galindo (Seattle). We contacted
all individuals whom we thought would have interest in NAS
and invited them to attend. Our San Francisco
contact at that time was Alan L. Smith (UCSF), who
handled local arrangements as well as the dinner
(which was an outrageous sum of $7.50 per head!)
(Fig. 15). Annual dues at the 1973 meeting were
$15.00 and this fee remained in effect for several years.
(click on thumbnail for larger image) Letter from Harvey Shapiro
(acting secretary) concerning the members of the
NAS, annual dues form, and mailing list.
||FIG. 16. John Mitchenfelder, M.D., 1st President and a founder (1973) of NAS.
was important because it implemented a definitive organizational
structure. The Neurosurgical Anesthesia Society was
changed to the Society of Neurosurgical Anesthesia
and Neurological Supportive Care (SNANSC) since it
was felt that the new name would be more open,
allowing for more disciplines to enter the
organization and the name also more clearly defined our
group aims. At this meeting, which was attended by more than
45 professionals, a constitution and bylaws were adopted
and officers were elected. The officers were John
D. Michenfelder, (Rochester, Minnesota) President
(Fig. 16); Maurice Albin (Pittsburgh),
President-Elect; Brian Marshall (Toronto), Vice-President;
and Harvey Shapiro (Philadelphia) Secretary-Treasurer. A program
committee was chosen for the Annual Conference and
Meeting to take place on October 11, 1974, in
Washington, D.C., prior to the annual ASA meeting.
The program (Fig. 17) was enhanced by active
participation of neurosurgeons-a hallmark of our
organization since its inception. In fact, six of our Presidents
have been neurosurgeons. I know of no other society in
anesthesiology with this type of collaborative
effort taking place on both sides of the table. The
meeting fee (including luncheon and the
educational materials) cost $15 for members and $20 for
non-members. This successful meeting was attended by 150
registrants. Of particular note was the effort of
Aaron Gissen (Boston) who developed
protocols/questionnaires concerning anesthesia-
neurosurgical problems and practices (Fig. 19).
17. (click on thumbnail for larger image) Program of the first annual
conference in 1974 at Washington D.C.
||Figure 18. (click on thumbnail for larger image) A portion of the 1974 fall newsletter
of the 1975 (Chicago) and 1976 (San Francisco) meetings (Figs.
20,21) illustrate the development, inclusiveness and
intellectual depth of our undertaking. A review of
the topics in both programs demonstrates the wide
variety of our members' concerns relating to
clinical, basic science, and educational objectives. The
international aspect of our interests was evidenced by the
number of European participants. A sense of déja vu
is elicited by the title of the first topic for
discussion at the 1976 meeting- "Pharmacologic
Protection against Brain Injury." Starting, with
the 1974 meeting, the scientific programs consisted
of free papers covering experimental studies or
clinical protocols. Eleven papers were presented at our
1976 meeting (Fig. 22). 1975-76 dues were $15.00, meeting
registration was $25.00 for members, $30.00 for non-members,
and the dinner cost had doubled to $15.00.
was formally recognized by the ASA as a subspecialty
in 1976 while James E. Cottrell served as Chair of
the ASA Subspecialty Committee. By the end of 1976,
organizational aspects had stabilized and we could
boast more than 160 members from institutions in
the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Our membership now
included anesthesiologists, neurosurgeons, neurologists,
engineers, and neuroscientists. We had established a
newsletter (Fig. 23), and our meetings were being
reported in Anesthesiology. Anesthesiologists and
neurosurgeons throughout the United States and
Canada interested in neuroanesthesiology had been
contacted, and SNANSC participated actively in panels and
presentations at the American Association of Neurological
Surgeons (Fig. 24). The educational component of our
Society expanded in 1974 with guidelines developed
by Aaron Gissen for the management of induced
hypotension, carotid endarterectomy, and air
embolism. Concomitantly, in 1975, James E. Cottrell
was developing questions for a survey of the number and types
of cases carried out by anesthesiology residents during
their first two years of clinical training as well
as the nature of neuroanesthesiology and surgical
practices. Preliminary information in this area was
presented during our 1976 meeting by Drs. Cottrell
(New York), Harp (Philadelphia) and Jannetta
(Pittsburgh). An educational subcommittee was organized to
develop a bibliography pertinent to our research, clinical,
and educational practices. We were in constant contact
with our European colleagues and plans were made to
meet with our British counterparts (Fig. 25).
Those plans came to fruition during a joint meeting
in Williamsburg, Virginia in 1979. A combined
meeting was held a few years later in London, England.
We had also developed a relationship with ASA vis-a-vis the
role of subspecialty groups within the organization;
sponsored and arranged the neuroanesthesia
breakfast panel at the ASA; and achieved
representation on the ASA Refresher Course committee.
(click on thumbnail for larger image) Letter from Aaron Gissen
concerning evaluation of management of induced
hypotension, carotid endarterectomy, and air
||FIG 20. (click on thumbnail for larger image) The 1975 program.
||FIG. 21. (click on
thumbnail for larger image) The program for the October,
1976, meeting. The subject of brain protection and the problem
of education in neuroanesthesia were highlighted.
The first U.S.A.
textbook in neuroanesthesiology (4), now in its third
edition (5), was published in 1980. By 1982 (our
tenth anniversary), we had experienced considerable
growth in membership and the participants
obviously enjoyed the meeting (Fig. 26). This
celebration was shadowed by the death of Brian M. Marshall
(Toronto), one of our founding members and President from
1976-77; we dedicated this meeting in his memory. At our
1986 meeting, SNANSC became the Society of
Neurosurgical Anesthesia and Critical Care (SNACC)
in order to recognize the importance of critical
care medicine to patients with severe neurological
(click on thumbnail for larger image) The eleven free papers presented
at the 1976 scientific session.
(click on thumbnail for larger image) The 1976 summer newsletter. Note
in the fifth paragraph that SNANSC sponsored a
breakfast panel at the ASA which continues to this
(click on thumbnail for larger image) A portion of the 1976 SNANSC
spring newsletter indicating our participation at the
1989 saw the launch of the Journal of
Neurosurgical Anesthesiology (JNA) with James E. Cottrell
serving as Editor, John Hartung as Associate
Editor, and Roberta Halporn as JNA's Editorial
Office Manager (Figs. 27-29). This journal has
since become the voice of SNACC, as well as that of
the Association de Neuro-Anésthesiologie et Réanimation
de langue Francaise, the Wissenschaflicher Arbeitskreis
Neuroanästhesie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für
Anästhesiologie und Intensivemedizin, the
Neuroanesthesia Society of Great Britain and
Ireland, and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutschsprachiger
Neuroanäthesisten und Neurointensivmediziner.
(click on thumbnail for larger image) Letter to Gordon McDowall, an
officer of the Neuroanesthesia Traveling Club of Great
Britain and Ireland.
(click on thumbnail for larger image) A portion of the SNANSC
newsletter of 1982, commenting on our 10th
James Cottrell, M.D., Founding Editor of Journal
of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology in 1989 and 8th
President of SNANSC.
anniversary meeting was celebrated in New Orleans
in 1992. It had historical overtones as John D.
(Jack) Michenfelder gave the Janssen Distinguished
Lecture on "The Past, Present, and Future of
Research in Neuroanesthesia." Jack is a founding member
of NAS, our society's first President, a former editor of
Anesthesiology and an eminent scholar, scientist, and
neuroanesthesiology educator. Another extraordinary
event took place that evening when Thomas W.
Langfitt spoke about changes taking place in the
American health care system. Dr. Langfitt is the neurosurgical
founder and a charter member of our Society. The work on
head injury and intracranial hypertension carried
out in his laboratories remains outstanding in its
originality and scope, and he trained many
physicians who subsequently occupied, or still occupy,
Chairs in Neurosurgery departments.
John Hartung, Ph.D., Associate Editor of the
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology since its
||FIG. 29. (click on thumbnail for larger image) Table of Contents of Vol 1, No. 1, of JNA
||FIG. 30. (click on thumbnail for larger image) Listing of the Presidents of NAS, SNANSC, and SNACC
||FIG. 31. M. Jane Matjasko, M.D., founding member of the NAS and the 10th President.
In 1972, only six
anesthesiology training programs in the United States
and Canada had a dedicated neuroanesthesiology
division or section for residency teaching and
fellowship training. As of 1989, there were
sixty-four neuroanesthesia training programs in the
United States and Canada. Looking back at the past 25
years, I cannot help but be impressed by the progress we have
made both in clinical and investigative
neuroanesthesiology, by the ability of our
subspecialty to attract many of the best and
brightest in our specialty, and by the capacity of
our present leaders to point the way to the future. We have
always been fortunate to have superb leadership, as scanning
the list of past Society Presidents indicates (Fig.
30). We were also cognizant of the capabilities of
our female members long before the term, "glass
ceiling," was coined, with Jane Matjasko, Philippa
Newfield, Elizabeth Frost, Judith Donegan, and
Betty Grundy (Figs. 31-34) each making substantial
||FIG. 32. Elizabeth A.M. Frost, M.D., early contributor to SNANSC
||FIG. 33. Phillipa Newfield, M.D., 14th President of SNANSC.
||FIG. 34. Elizabeth Grundy, M.D., early contributor to SNANSC.
Dozens of individuals
have been responsible for the health and vigor of
our neuroanesthesiology organization and space
limitations do not allow for a more in-depth
narration of their contributions. These individuals
helped in various ways such as organizing meetings, serving
on committees, reviewing the literature concerning
neuroanesthesiology, judging abstracts, and
performing the many thankless tasks that make our
organization function-one can only salute them and
thank them for their efforts.
We look forward to celebrating our thirtieth anniversary in 2002!
1. Frost EAM. History of neuroanesthesia.
In: Albin, MS ed. Textbook of Neuroanesthesia with
Neurosurgical and Neuroscience Perspectives. New
York: McGraw-Hill, 1997:1-20.
2. Hunter AF. Neurosurgical Anesthesia. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Co., 1964.
3. Gilbert RGB, Brindle GF, Galindo A.
Anesthesia for Neurosurgery. London: J & A Churchill
4. Cottrell JE, Turndorf H. Anesthesia and Neurosurgery. St. Louis: Mosby-Yearbook Inc, 1980.
5. Cottrell JE, Smith DS. Anesthesia and Neurosurgery. St. Louis: Mosby Yearbook, Inc, 1994.